This page relates to the year 1434 Calendrier Julien.
- the First Portuguese forwardings towards Africa. The Portuguese navigator Gil Eanes passes the Cape Bojador to the Morocco, limit southern of the world known then by Europeans. A tradition saw there the limit symbolic system and insuperable between Création and Chaos. Fifteen forwardings sent by Henri the Navigator failed to double it since 1424. Eanes advances of fifty miles and finds traces of men and camels.
- Phnom Penh becomes the new capital of the Khmer kingdom .
- Between 1434 and 1438 Toghon, wire of Mahmoud, extends the domination of the Oïrat on all the Mongolia.
- the Mongolian Orientaux proclaim Adjaï, brother of large Oldjeitémur khan with Karakorum. Toghon, its Prime Minister, has the effective capacity.
- Following the internal conflicts and of the combat against the Chinese, the Eastern Mongols are weakened. The only important force is that of Adaï-khan, close to the Chinese border, in the country of the Khortchin. Arouktaï east is Prime Minister.
- the dynasty Ming supports the aspirations of the Oïrat to the supreme capacity. But Thogon, arrived at the capacity, estimates that it is necessary to found a new Mongolian empire . The troops oïrates invade and ransack the Eastern Turkestan and the area of Tourfan and the Ili.
- the Phagmodrupa, which always have a political control on the Tibet, are disputed by the chiefs of Rinpung, a locality in the north of Shigatse. Start then two centuries of underhand fights between the two more important religious schools of central Tibet, the Karmapa and the Gelugpa, often via their laic guards. Karmapa are supported by the lords of Rinpung, while Gelugpa are protected by the phagmodrupa chiefs from the area from Lhassa.
- Assassination of Mubarak Shah, sultan of Delhi, victim of a conspiracy. Muhammad Shah succeeds to him until in 1443. Under his reign, the sultan of Mâlwa will invade Delhi which will be saved thanks to the intervention of Bahlul Lodi.
- January: Compacted (agreements) of Basle negotiated between the council and a delegation Hussite (free preaching, utraquism, public correction of the sins, acceptance of already accomplished secularizations). The Taborites reject its agreements, but are beaten by an army of barons and pragois (moderate). The utraquists and most moderated taborites reformulate the Four Articles which limit it to the only communion of the two species.
- May 29th: With Rome, Eugene IV is with the catches with the revolted people which after having imprisoned his nephew, the cardinal Francesco Condulmaro in front of his arrogance, put the seat in front of the palate of the pope. Eugene IV succeeds in fleeing lying at the bottom of a boat and gaining Florence. Seven “governors of the freedom of the Romans” settle in Capitole (May 29th).
- May 30th, Bohemia: An army Hussite dominated by the extremists Taborites is crushed with the Bataille of Lipany. Procope Holy is killed there.
- June 1st:
- Beginning of the reign of Ladislas III Jagellon (1424 - 1444), king of Poland.
- Beginning of the reign of Casimir IV Jagellon, large-prince of Lithuania.
- June 5th, Russia: With died of Georges de Galitch, his sons, Basile “the Ladle” and Dimitri Chemiaka continues the war with Vassili II for the possession of Moscow.
- June 26th: The Concile of Basle reaffirms its superiority with the pope solemnly.
- October 6th, Italy: Cosme de Médicis, of return of exile, becomes the Master of Florence after its victory over the Albizzi.
- the banker Cosme de Médicis seizes the power with Florence by respecting the constitutional forms (the Médicis control until in 1737). Very popular, he affirms himself like the defender of the republican institutions. He handles the public agencies discreetly, like the Otto di Guardia , kind of secret police to his service. He supports the artists, makes build the convent of San Marco and the church San Lorenzo. He saw simply.
- October 16th: Amédée VIII of Savoy gives up most of its authority to his/her son Louis and founds the Ordre of the saints Maurice & Lazare.
- the Normandy is raised against the English yoke.
- the Hungarian tycoon Jean Hunyadi lends 1 200 guilders gold with Sigismond which leaves him in pledge a property.
- Francesco Sforza takes the walk of Ancône to the pope Eugene IV.
- popular Revolution of the mining districts of the Bergsland (Dalécarlie) led by the Swedish patriot Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson against Erik XIII (fine in 1435).
- revolted attacks the representatives of the royal capacity (taken manor of the baillif of Borganäs in Dalécarlie, fortress of Köping, Västerås). They go through the Uppland in direction of Uppsala and Stockholm while risings occur in the coastal regions of the Norrland and in the islands Åland. Revolted do not manage to seize Stockholm. Engelbrekt goes on Nyköping and makes an agreement with the baillif of the city. It comes into contact with the members of the Council of the Kingdom which sits at Vadstena. The Council shows the king to have violated the law ( Konungabalk ) and is declared untied duty of obedience towards him. Erik XIII is paralyzed by its conflict with the Holstein and the Hanse while the revolt extends. The Danish territories of the peninsula are occupied by revolted. In October, king Erik unloads in Stockholm with an important fleet and obtains a one year truce at the end which a court made up members of the councils of the three kingdoms would slice the litigations opposing the kings to the Swedes.
Art & culture
- April 14th: Beginning of the construction of the Saint-Pierre Cathedral of Nantes
- October 19th: Foundation of the University of Catane.
- the Flemish painter Jan Van Eyck painted the husbands Arnolfini and the Madonna with the canon Van der Paele .
- Brunelleschi completes the cupola of the cathedral of Florence (fine in 1436).
- Completion of the church Santa Maria Novella with Florence.
- Cosme de Médicis, patron, prepares the artistic blossoming that Laurent Splendid the will carry to maturity.
Ethiopia: Constitution of a cycle of Miracles of Saint Georges . Translation of the collection of the Miracles of Blessed Virgin Marie , of which a part comes from Latin accounts from Saint Ildefonse and another from writings Copte S made up with the Egyptian convent of El-Moharraq. Compilation of the apocalyptic revelations, as the Book of the Mystery of the Sky and the Earth , Bahaïla-Micaél . An important cabalistic literature develops.
Science & technology
- Nicolas of CUSE declares that the universe has neither center nor limits.
Economy & company
- In front of exports of Western industry, the Egypt sees dying its craft industry: for 14 000 weaving looms with Alexandria at the end of the 14th century, there remain 800 in 1434 about it.
- the Concile of Basle confirms with Raguse the authorization to trade with the Infidels.
- the Portuguese embark on their ships of the quotas of degredados , criminals and delinquents. The first law on this practice goes back to 1434.
- the revolted minors of the Bergsland suffer from the war which king Erik carries out against the Hanse, whose ships transport iron that they produce.
Births in 1434
Death in 1434
Be-X-old: 1434 Map-bms: 1434 Nds-nl: 1434 Simple: 1434
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