The Mikado 141 R was a type of Locomotive to vapor known as unified the SNCF which was largely used on the whole of the French network of 1945 with 1974. This machine was also at the origin of changes in the work of the railwaymen, by breaking association engine-mechanic-driver: the teams of control are not titular any more of a machine which is allotted to them but can operate any machine; one calls that the led in banality .
At the end of the Second world war, the deficit out of engines and the incapacity of French industry, in the course of rebuilding, to quickly deliver a great number of new machines imposed various orders to the American and Canadian manufacturers.
It is the firm Baldwin Locomotive Works, which in the urgency of the time drew the plans of these machines, while modifying for the French network an engine which had circulated already for several years in the United States, models it light. The principal adaptations related to the setting to the gauge the SNCF, tensioner the attachment with the plugs, the screens smoke shield, the driver's cab left side, a door of smoke-box at central wheel of closing then of Northern type, with the exhaust Kylchap on the machines of the second section. This technological choice which hustled the French railway industrial conservatism of the time, was going to appear judicious.
Thus an ordering of 700 engines all services (mixed) had spent in February 1945 to constitute the first section: the 141 R 1 to 700 . They are the firms American Locomotive Company in Schenectady (New York), Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), and Lima Locomotive Works in Lima (Ohio) which took care of construction. Once the financing made possible, the second section, the 141 R 701 to 1340 , are ordered near the same firms, assisted by Canadian manufacturers: Montreal Engine Works in Montreal (Quebec) and in Kingston (Ontario). These machines were then mainly designed to be heated with the Fuel (preheated heavy fuel) and not by coal like the preceding ones. The 604 machines with fuel ensured a better service and were of this fact more requested than those with coal.
The massive introduction of machines heated to fuel is also explained by the fact why in the immediate future post-war period, the coal of quality was very required and that the SNCF consumed 9 million tons annually of them. Fuel thus allowed savings in coal, even if in many deposits it were about a true revolution. The autonomy permitted by fuel (700 km instead of 400 km) explains also the more intensive use of the machines. The vaporists speak about " mazoutières" or of " charbonnières" according to fuel employed; the machines heated by fuel, were also called " goudronneuses" by the teams of control.
After the second world war, the American manufacturers who were " boostés" by the effort of war, found themselves with the head of very modern means of production. The organization of the assembly lines of the engines were connected so that it was done in auto industry. Thus of July 1945 in May 1946 the 700 141 R of the first section were built in eleven months only. One can however observe important variations on the number of monthly produced machines. If the large one of the production started really in September, it will reach its culminating point during October December November and January, to strongly slow down in February and March, and finally to begin again until May, is an average of almost three engines per day! As comparison (quite relative, French industry being very weakened after the war) it will have taken four years, of June 1948 in July 1952, with the Schneider manufacturer to deliver the thirty-five 241 P to the SNCF.
The first engine, the 141 R 1 built by Lima, left the workshops on July 30th 1945. The 141 R 466 was the first with being unloaded in France on November 17th 1945 with the port of Marseilles. The last of the series, the 141 R 1340 , left the workshops of Canadian Locomotive Company in July 1947 and was unloaded on September 5th 1947 with the port of Cherbourg. Seventeen engines (the 141 R 1220 to 1235 and the 141 R 1241 ) disappeared at sea at the time of the shipwreck of the Norwegian ship Belpamela , the April 11th 1947, taken in a violent storm with broad of Newfoundland. So on the 1340 engines ordered intialement, only 1323 entered in service on the French network.
For the SNCF, this type of machine constituted a small revolution: with simple expansion and very advanced from the constructive point of view, the 141 R 1101 to 1340 were the only engines with vapor of the SNCF to being entirely equipped with wheels and roller bearings on all the Essieu X driving and coupled, as well as almost indeformable cast solid frame. As for the frames out of bars, and the bearings of the axle boxes of the 141 R 1 to 1100 , they appeared quite as irreproachable, which made of them at the same time powerful machines and of an economic maintenance. For the 141 R 1101 to 1340 , the maximum mileage traversed between two great revisions (lifting), was thorough up to 230.000 kilometers. Easy to lead, they offered a comfort relating but new with the mechanics and the drivers. The shelters were genuine closed driving cabins, equipped with a comfort and an ergonomics hitherto unknown with the SNCF: control and heating sitting on armchairs with the controllers to ranges of hands, coal automatic feeding thanks to the mechanical stocker stoker, and heats by fuel even easier with the ordering of the fuel oil regulator. They were " banalisées" i.e. nonrelated to a particular team.
It is on October 19th 1975 which still circulated the last 141 R in service with the SNCF, the 141 R 1187 of the deposit of Vénissieux, by ensuring a special train outward journey and return between Lyon and Veynes. Four machines of the deposit of Narbonne were rented with the Greek railroads of November 1973 at April 1974.
- Simple expansion, 2 cylinders and Overheating
- Length (loco only): 14,64 m
- Overall length: 24,13 m
- Surface of the grid: 5,2 m ²
- Pressure of the boiler: 15,5 hpz
- Diameter of the cylinders: 597 mm
- Travel of the pistons: 711 mm
- Diameter of the driving wheels: 1,65 m
- Maximum speed in service: 100 km/h
- Maximum capacity with the hook of the tender: 2928 cv. to 80 km/h
- Laden weight machine alone: 115,5 T (coal), 116,25 T (fuel)
- Tender 30 R, laden weight: 75 T
Preserved machines12 engines 141 R are preserved today. Among them, are in operating condition:
- 141 R 420 , (coal) based with Clermont-Ferrand, managed by the Civil co. of Conservation of 141 R 420
- 141 R 840 , (fuel) based with the Aubrais, managed by l'" AAATV" : Friendly of Old and Friends of the Steam traction, section Centers/Loire Valley.
- 141 R 1126 , (fuel) property of the SNCF, based with Toulouse, managed by the Friendly one of the Railwaymen for the Safeguarding of 141 R 1126
- 141 R 1199 , (fuel) property of the SNCF, based with Nantes, managed by Loco Vapor 1199
Two machines circulate in Switzerland: the 141 R 568 (coal) ex CITEV, and 1244 (fuel). Three others are stored there in spare parts: the 141 R 73 (coal), 1207 (coal) and 1332 (fuel) after the bankruptcy of the company in charge of their restoration.
The three remaining machines, the 141 R 1108 (fuel) property of the SNCF, with Breil-on-Roya, 1187 (fuel) property of the SNCF, with the Quoted of the train of Mulhouse and 1298 (fuel) property of the SNCF, with Miramas, are preserved with the shelter, but out of state of circulation.
Gallery of images
141 R 568
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