This page relates to the year 1260 Calendrier Julien.
- the city Morocco groin of Salted as its population are attacked by Castilian soldiers who provided the Moroccan sultan out of weapons.
- the kingdom of Gao is vassalized by the Empire of Mali.
- Voyage from Dominican in Ethiopia, can be at the origin of legendary the Royaume of the priest Jean.
- July 4th: Kubilai Khan, wire of Tolui and grandson of Gengis Khan, is elected 5th and last supreme Khan of the Mongolian (until in 1294), succeeding his/her brother Möngke deceased in 1259.
- Kubilai convenes a Quriltay made up of its faithful to the north of China, in its residence of summer of Chang-tou on banks of the Donlon-nour, which proclaims it Grand Khan, in competition with Ariq-bögè (July 4th). Kubilai, which has supports it its soldiers, congédie the officers who support his young brother and establishes his authority on the garrisons of China. Its troops put in rout the tumens of Ariq-bögè at the north of the Kan-Penny. Kubilay spends the winters 1260 - 1261 close to Karakorum, and obliges his/her brother to move back until the higher course of the Ienisseï. It leaves a garrison to Karakorum and returns to China (1261).
- the LAMA Tibetan Phags-Pa is charged by Koubilaï Khan with the direction with the religious communities with the Empire. The administration of the Tibet is reorganized under the auspices of the Mongols. The religious school Sakyapa preserves the capacity until in 1354, this one being transmitted of uncle to nephew within the family of the Sakya.
- the Khanat de Djaghataï receives the area of Kachgar and the territory of old the khanat Ouïgour, Bechbalik, Tourfan and Koutcha, old fields of large the khan.
- Beginning of the first voyage in China of Niccolo and Matteo Sports shirt (until in 1269). Started from Venice, they arrive to Constantinople, then gain the Black Sea (Soudak), and make trade with the Tatares in the south of Kazan. A war prevents them from going back to Venice and they choose to circumvent the Tartar territory. They cross the the Volga, reach Bukhara where they remain three years. A messenger invites them to go in China at large Khan, which receives them and a mission near the pope entrusts to them. Their return voyage lasts three years and it reaches Ayas, into Small Arménie, then Acre in April 1269.
The Middle East
- Guerre enters the Mongols of the Horde of Gold (Moslem) and Khanat of Perse (Buddhist) (until in 1262).
- January 12th: Houlagou Khan besieges Alep, taken in February in spite of a heroic resistance. The city is devastated, its massacred population. Certain kinglets Ayyoubides, incompetents to resist, decide to recognize Mongolian suzerainty. The Armenian king Hethoum and its son-in-law the prince of Antioche Bohémond makes in the same way. The Francs of Acre adopt a position of neutrality rather favorable to the Moslems.
- With the advertisement of died of Large Khan Möngke (August 11th 1259), Houlagou withdraws Syria to support Kubilai Khan by leaving a governor, Kit Buga, a Christian nestorien, with the head of 20.000 men. Hama and Damas (March 1st) is occupied. It is soon the turn of Nablus and Gaza. The count of Sidon makes kill the cousin of Kit Buga. The Mongolian burn and destroy the city. Free-Mongolian alliance is broken.
- the Mameluke Baybars seizes the Syria.
- July 26th: A powerful Egyptian army leaves Cairo and enters in Palestine. It attacks the Mongolian garrison of Gaza, which, taken of short, hardly resists. The sultan Qutuz obtains the authorization of cross of Acre to cross their grounds and to supply himself there. A popular insurrection bursts with Damas against the Mongolian . The Mamelukes benefit from it to consolidate their positions in Galileo.
- September 3rd: Victoire of the Mamelukes of Egypt on the Mongolian à la' Battle of Ain Djalout. the Mameluke Baybars, of origin Kiptchak, is sent to before guard with a small detachment. The Mongols of Kit Buga, falling into the trap, attack it and continue it. They are then encircled by the embusquées Egyptian troops, more. The Mongolian cavalry is exterminated, Kit Buga itself, captured, is decapitated. The September 8th at the evening, the Mamelukes enter as a liberator Damas.
- After having begun again Alep at the beginning of October and pushed back against offensive of Houlagou on Alep (November), the Mamelukes plan to organize punitive raids against Bohémond d' Antioche and Hethoum d' Arménie, main allies of the Mongols. But a fight for the capacity bursts between Baybars, which wants to be established in Alep as governor and Qutuz, which does not want capacity competitor in Syria. Qutuz takes again the road of Cairo to cross short to the conflict.
- October 25th: Beginning of the reign of Baybars Ier, sultan Mameluke bahrite of Egypt (until in 1277).
- Of return in Egypt, Baybars carries out its hand the sultan Qutuz at the time of a hunting for hare. It is made proclaim sultan by the military chiefs (October 25th). It enters to Cairo, where its authority is recognized without difficulties.
- In Syria, other officers Mamelukes benefit from dead from Qutuz to proclaim their independence. By a campaign flash, the sultan Baybars seizes Damas and Alep, joining together under his authority the old ayyoubide field. The border of the empire of the It-qan goes to the bank east of the Euphrate.
- the Osmanlis, going down from the Turkish tribe Oghuz of the Kayi, directed by Ertogrul are established in the area of Sögüt (Bithynie), at the border with the Byzantine empire, where the sultan Aldine Saljûqide `Ala assigns a territory to them, core of the Ottoman Empire.
- July: Victoire of Ottokar Přemysl on Etienne V of Hungary to Kroissenbrunn. Etienne V must yield to the Bohemia the Silesia, the Slovakia, the Lusace, the Austria and the Styrie (1260 - 1269).
September 4th: The Guelfe S florentins are crushed by the Gibelin S Sienan with the Bataille of Montaperti.
- Charles of Anjou, brother of the king de France, subjects the Piedmont.
- Albert Large the becomes bishop of Ratisbon (fine in 1262).
- Henri III of England rejects any supervision of the barons.
Louis IX, king de France prohibits the legal duels, the wearing of weapons and all private wars.
the Lithuania NS resist victoriously the order of the teutonic Chevaliers.
Wislaw II becomes prince of Rügen.
Art & culture
- October 24th: Dedication of the Notre-Dame Cathedral of Chartres.
- Completion of the Cathedral of Rheims.
- Completion of the gate of the virgin with Notre-Dame de Paris.
- Bologna is a great center of illumination of manuscripts.
Rutebeuf written the Miracle of Theophilus , one of the oldest “miracles of Notre-Dame”.
Boèce of Dacie and Siger of the Brabant study Aristote while being based on the comment of Averroès (averroïstes), without being concerned with compatibility of its Philosophie with the Christian Revelation.
- Song of Ostrov , the oldest manuscript written in Czech.
Holy Bonaventure (1221 - 1274), general Minister for the Franciscain S (1256) promulgates with Narbonne the constitutions of the order. It defines an average way between rigorous interpretations and laxists of the rule franciscaine which delay the scission of the order.
- Under Baybars, the Egypt and the Syria will become again of the centers of cultural and artistic radiation. Baybars embellishes Cairo, built bridges and roads, restores a postal service.
Economy & company
- “ Libro of mow siete partidas ”, compilation of the Roman law, exciting Castilian absolutism and unifying the right of the kingdom of Castille.
- In the Siete Partidas , Alphonse X of Castille tries to prevent the Juifs from being a broker of great trade, collector of finances (they all are to it and everywhere), to hold of the shops of foodstuffs which the Christians attend, to open their workshops and trades Sunday. One prohibits to them to carry objects and fabrics of luxuries and one obliges them to attend certain religious offices and to listen to the sermons of the Dominican brothers in the churches. Generally, these official constraints remain dead letter.
- Destruction of the vineyard of the Paris basin.
- Edict organizing the public assistance in China.
Sciences & technology
- Use of the Zero of the Arab numerals in Italy.
- Generalization of the windmill in Europe.
- First Compass assembled on pivot in Europe.
- Paris becomes the capital of the tapestry.
Births in 1260
- Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron de Cobham (in 1339 dies)
- Matthieu Csák, chief of the Váh and the Tatras areas auj. in Slovakia (in 1321 dies)
- Maître Eckhart, German, philosophical and mystical theologist (in 1328 dies)
- Enguerrand de Marigny, Minister for the king Philippe IV of France
- Guillaume de Nogaret, Minister of Justice of the king Philippe IV of France (approximate date) (in 1313 dies)
- Maximus Planudes, grammarien and Byzantine theologist (dies in 1330, date approximate)
- Farsi erudite Persian, mathematician and physicist (in 1320 dies).
Death in 1260
Jordanus Nemorarius, German mathematician.
- Qûtb Jamal ud-DIN Hânswi, poet Soufi of language Persian.
Be-X-old: 1260 Map-bms: 1260
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