This page relates to the year 1253 Calendrier Julien.
- the sovereign hafside of Tunis, Abû `Abd Allah Muhammad, takes the title of caliph under the name of Al-Mustansir.
- April 28th: With the Japan, the monk Nichiren (1222 - 1282) founds the “ École of will sûtra Lotus ” (Hokkeshû sect or Bouddhisme nichiren), which becomes a frightening political clout, based on patriotism. He ensures that there is anything else to make for its safety only rely on the Buddha Vairocana, the “ Illuminateur ”. As from 1253, Nichiren claims to teach its doctrines with the temple of Kiyomizu to Kyôto, which is dedicated in theory exclusively being studied of the Tendai. It runs up against the monks and the lords of the place and must flee. It finds refuge in the East, with Kamakura, and develops for the first time in Japan doctrines openly sectarian and exclusive, opponent orthodoxy and heresy.
September 16th: Guillaume van Rubroek (Rubrouck), sent from the king Louis IX of France, passes the Volga and travels towards the central Asia and Karakorum where it meets Möngke, large Khan of Mongolia, the January 3rd 1254 (until in 1255).
Möngke holds a Quriltay with the source of the Onon where it gives the order to his brothers to go to conquer the world. It charges the junior Hülegü with annexing to the Turkestan the caliphate of Baghdad and Mésopotamie and to Koubilaï Khan to lead a forwarding against the China of the Song.
In China, falls of the dynatie Duan of the Royaume of Dali, annexed by Koubilaï Khan (Qubilai Khan).
The Middle East
- the king Hethoum of Petite Arménie goes to Karakorum where he concludes an alliance with large Khan.
Louis IX of France concludes a treaty with the Mamelouks which release the last prisoners crossed in exchange of an alliance against the Ayyoubides of Syria, promise the restitution of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and of almost all old the Royaume of Jerusalem in on this side the Jordan. But as nothing decisive was obtained, the Mamelukes make peace with the Syrians at the instigation of the Caliph.
- Louis IX occupies the remainder of its stay in Holy Land (1250-1254) to restore the fortifications of the coastal places which remain with the Francs (Acre, Césarée, Jaffa, Sidon), to restore the agreement within the Principauté of Antioche, divided by family quarrels, and to reconcile the latter with the Armenians.
- July 6th: Mindovg Mindaugas is made crown king of Lithuania by the Pape Innocent IV. It is the first to carry this title.
- July 14th:
- Beginning of the reign of Henri Ier the Large king of Navarre and count of Champagne.
- Thibaud V becomes count de Champagne.
- July: Victoire of Guillaume of Holland on the Flemings with Westkapelle.
- August 9th: Approval about the Clarisse S.
- September 23rd: Beginning of the reign of Ottokar II of Bohemia (until in 1278).
- Prague becomes the administrative center of the Bohemia.
- the Bohemia, with its apogee, seizes the Austria, the Slovakia and the Styrie.
- November 29th: Louis II Severe the (1229-1294) becomes duke of Bavaria.
Daniel de Galicie is made crown king of the Rus' de Halych-Volodymyr. It accepts the union with Rome and receives from the pope Innocent IV the royal crown. His/her son, Leon, wife Constancy of Hungary.
- With Paris, creation of the knights of the guet, night police force.
- the Flanders must give up its supervision on the Zealand.
- Foundation and development of Frankfurt-on-the Oder, in Brandebourg.
- Saray-Berke becomes capital Horde of Gold (fine in 1345).
Art & culture
- Canonization of Stanislas of Cracow (Poland).
- Dedication of the lower church of Base.
- Manufacture of the psautier of Saint-Louis .
- Foundation of the Sorbonne.
- Construction of the temple Kenchôli with Kamakura, the Japan.
- Guillaume de Rubrouck mentions Buddhism Tibetan. He quotes celebrates it religious formula om mani battam (in fact: Om Mani Padme Hum ) and known as to have taken part in a religious debate. He speaks monks idolâtres who believe in transmigration of the heart and with the spirits. He also reports that over there men live, the “tebet” which are cannibals and drink in cranium of their parents.
Births in 1253
Death in 1253
- July 8th: Thibaut Ier de Navarre, king de Navarre since 1234 known as Thibaut Chansonnier , Count de Champagne.
- September 23rd: Venceslas Ier of Bohemia (king).
- November 29th: Othon II of Bavaria.
- Robert Grosseteste, bishop, scientist and theologist English (born v. 1175), founder of the school franciscaine of Oxford.
Beats-smg: 1253 Be-X-old: 1253 Map-bms: 1253 Simple: 1253
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